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Case Studies
In order to provide context to the lessons learned from the implementation and management of MPAs in East Asia and Micronesia, we have provided 25 case studies from around the region, grouped into four categories: Habitats and Biodiversity, Socio-economic Objectives and Impacts, MPA Benefits to Fisheries and MPA Monitoring. These case studies represent current issues and problems in the science and management and the approaches used to address them. All of these case studies are taken from published journal articles or reports and the citation is provided. Click on "view details" to read the complete case study.

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Habitats & Biodiversity
Socio-economic objectives & impacts
MPA benefits to fisheries
MPA monitoring

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  • 1. Category Socio-economic objectives & impacts
    Region / Country Southeast Asia
    Project Name Community-based resource management in Southeast Asia.
    Citation Ferrari, M.F. 2006. Rediscovering community-conserved areas in South-east Asia: peoples’ initiatives to biodiversity loss. Parks 16: 43-48

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    Human settlements have been shaping South-east Asia’s environment for thousands of years. But major social, economic and political changes in the past two centuries have had a tremendous impact on biodiversity and people. About 50% of coral reefs are threatened (Burke et al., 2002) and 65% of mangro ...



  • 2. Category Socio-economic objectives & impacts
    Region / Country Pacific
    Project Name Customary management for protecting coral reefs
    Citation Aswani, S., Albert, S., Sabetian, A. and T, Furusawa. 2007. Customary management as precautionary and adaptive principles for protecting coral reefs in Oceania. Coral Reefs 26: 1009-1021

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    In the Pacific Islands, several factors have contributed to fisheries mismanagement, including poor data and inadequate scientific models, environmental variability, ignorance about natural systems, noncompliance with management measures, and the complex inter-relationships between biological, econo ...



  • 3. Category Socio-economic objectives & impacts
    Region / Country Thailand
    Project Name Ko Chang Marine National Park – its design and the livelihood of the coastal communities
    Citation Lunn, K.E. and P. Dearden. 2006. Fishers’ needs in Marine Protected Area zoning: a case study in Thailand. Coastal Management, 34:183–198

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    One of the main reasons why marine parks fail to be successful and achieve their management objectives is partly caused by inadequate consultation and participation of the local communities during planning and decision making. In all cases, MPAs are a common mechanism to accomplish conservation obje ...



  • 4. Category Socio-economic objectives & impacts
    Region / Country Philippines
    Project Name Tubbataha – creating a locally managed marine protected area in the middle of the Sulu Sea
    Citation WWF Philippines. 2006. Tubbataha reefs: a marine protected area that works. WWF Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines. 22 pp.)

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    The Tubbataha Reefs are found at the very center of the Sulu Sea. They lie along the Cagayan Ridge, which traverses the Sulu Sea from the northeast, from the Sultana Shoal in Cagayancillo, to the southwest, to the San Miguel Islands of Tawi-Tawi. The nearest land mass of considerable size is mainlan ...



  • 5. Category Socio-economic objectives & impacts
    Region / Country Papua New Guinea
    Project Name Designing MPAs based on local socioeconomic conditions in Papua New Guinea
    Citation Cinner, J. 2007. Designing marine reserves to reflect local socioeconomic conditions: lessons from long-enduring customary management systems. Coral Reefs

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    Coral reef conservation strategies such as marine protected areas have met limited success in many developing countries. Some researchers attribute part of these shortcomings to inadequate attention to the social context of conserving marine resources. To gain insights into applying Western conserva ...



  • 6. Category Socio-economic objectives & impacts
    Region / Country Philippines
    Project Name Communicating goals and objectives of MPA in the San Salvador Island
    Citation Katon, B.M., R.S. Pomeroy, L. Garces and A.M. Salamanca. 1999. Fisheries Management of San Salvador Island Philippines: A Shared Responsibility. Society and Natural Resources, 12: 777-795

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    Community-based coastal resource management (CBCRM) projects have been implemented in the Philippines since the early 1980’s. The San Salvador Island case illustrates that the CBCRM can serve as a route to sustainable, equitable and efficient coastal resource management and also to comanagement. Co- ...



  • 7. Category Socio-economic objectives & impacts
    Region / Country Philippines
    Project Name The sustainability of ICM projects in the Philippines
    Citation Thiele, M.T., R.B. Pollnac and P. Christie. 2005. Relationships between coastal tourism and ICM sustainability in the central Visayas region of the Philippines. Ocean and Coastal Management 48: 378-392

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    Coastal resource management (CRM) has a long history in the Philippines. The Central Visayas Regional Project (CVRP) was one of the earliest and largest community- based integrated coastal management (ICM) projects in the Philippines. The objectives of the CVRP placed a strong emphasis on community ...



  • 8. Category Socio-economic objectives & impacts
    Region / Country Philippines
    Project Name Involving poor fisherfolk in MPA management in the Philippines
    Citation Majanen, T. 2007. Resource use conflicts in Mabini and Tingloy, the Philippines. Marine Policy 31: 480–487

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    The Philippines is well known for its rich marine biodiversity but its large and rapidly growing coastal population has caused 98% of its coral reefs to be under medium or high threat. Mabini and Tingloy, located in the province of Batangas, are neighboring municipalities that emerges as a recreatio ...



  • 9. Category Socio-economic objectives & impacts
    Region / Country Southeast Asia
    Project Name Comparison of permanent MPAs to other forms of coral reef management
    Citation McClanahan, T., Marnane, M.J., Cinner, J.E. and W.A. Kiene. 2006. A comparison of Marine Protected Areas and alternative approaches to coral-reef management. Current Biology 16: 1408-1413

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    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely adopted as the leading tool for coral-reef conservation, but resource users seldom accept them (Christie 2004, McClanahan et al. 2005b) and many have failed to produce tangible conservation benefits (McClanahan 1999). Few studies have objectively and si ...



  • 10. Category Socio-economic objectives & impacts
    Region / Country Philippines
    Project Name Perception, understanding and realistic expectations of stakeholders in Philippines MPAs
    Citation Pomeroy, R.S., E.G. Oracion, R.B. Pollnac and D.A. Caballes. 2005. Perceived economic factors influencing the sustainability of integrated coastal management projects in the Philippines. Ocean and Coastal Management 48: 360-377

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    Although integrated coastal management (ICM) has a long history in Philippines, most of the efforts have not been sustainable. This has become a pressing issue that the government of Philippines has to address. One of the main factors influencing the sustainability of ICM is the economic aspect in t ...
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